It is also the only region of the Italian mainland that bathes the sea. Bordered to the east and northeast with Marks, west and northwest Tuscany and the south and southwest by the Lazio. Also, is this an enclave in the Marches, in the municipality of Città di Castello. The regional capital is Perugia, in Italy, Perugia. The official language, as in the rest of Italy, is Italian.
In the literature, sometimes called green Umbria cuor il d'Italia ("the green heart of Italy"). The phrase is taken from a poem on the Odes Giosuè Carducci Barbarian (1877), although the issue is not Umbria but it a particular place, the source of the river Clitunno.
The territory is dominated by hills (by 63%) and mountains (31%) and has a tiny flat piece of land (6%) .
The region offers a variety of morphological and landscape through the succession valleys, mountain ranges, plateaus and plains, which are the dominant geographic feature. Its topography is dominated by the Apennines, with its highest point in the mountain region bordering Vettore Marks, with 2476 meters. The maximum altitude is reached in the eastern part of the region, in the Sibylline mountains (Monti Sibillini, 2,478 m). In this area there is the Sibillini Mountains National Park.
The highlight is the river Tiber Umbria walking in north-south and forms the border with Lazio about, but its source is right on the border of Tuscany. In the valley of this river is the lowest point of Umbria in Attigliano (96 m). The three main tributaries of the Tiber flows south through Umbria. The basin is relatively uninhabited Chiascio until Bastia Umbra. About 10 km beyond the Tiber joins Torgiano. The Topino, open the Apennines by steps that followed the Via Flaminia and carretras its successors, and makes a sharp turn at Foligno to flow in a northwesterly direction for a few kilometers before joining Bettona Chiascio below. The third river is the Nera, which flows into the Tiber further south, at Terni, its valley is called Valnerina. The upper Nera cuts ravines in the mountains, the lower-basin Chiascio Topino is in a fairly large floodplain.
In antiquity, the plains were a pair of interconnected shallow lakes, the Lacus Umber Clitorius and Lacus. Were dried by the Romans over several years centers, but an earthquake in the fourth century. C. and the political downfall of the Roman Empire that resulted again flooded the basin. Was drained for the second time over five hundred years: the Benedictine monks began the process in the thirteenth century and ended Foligno engineer in the eighteenth century. Currently, the most prominent lake is Lake Trasimeno Umbria, with an area of 128 km ² the largest of the Italian mainland, fourth in size among the Italian lakes after Lake Como Such an extension is given with a shallow (mean 4.3 m, maximum 6 m) so that the Trasimeno falls within sheetlike lakes.
It has a continental climate, so temperatures vary greatly, especially considering the differences in altitude. In the plains and hills type is mild Mediterranean sublittoral or altitude, with summer droughts, while in mountain areas is mild continental and, on the highest peaks, cool temperate, with rainfall often particularly notable otoño.2 spring and annual average temperatures of the most important centers are usually found between the 11.2 ° C of Nursia and 15 ° C from Terni passing through Spoleto 12.9 ° C, and 13 , 1 ° C of Perugia and the 14.2 ° C Foligno. Elevation has a role: Nursia, to 604 m has an average temperature of the coldest month (January) of about 1.1 ° C while Perugia (493 meters) and Spoleto (396 m) have values of about 3 ° C more (Perugia 4.0 ° C). Terni is surely the Umbrian city has milder winter weather (6.3 ° C in January). The average temperatures of the warmest month (July) vary between 21 ° and 25 ° Nursia Terni (Perugia: 23 ° C), but with peaks exceeding 40 ° in the Valle Umbra. Precipitation is generally between 700 and 1,100 mm (Perugia: 893 mm), but are distributed in a very limited number of days: between 80 and 100.
The regional nature parks in Umbria are six, of which five are in the province of Perugia and one in Terni. In this case include:
Parque del Lago Trasimeno
Park of Monte Cucco
Parque del Monte Subasio
Nera River Park
Tiber River Park
To these must be added the National Park of Sibillini Mountains shared with the Marche region, where the headquarters of the park.