The altimetric differences, which from 2005 m of Monte Papa degrade up to 300 m of the base of the Murgia of S. Oronzo and ecological heterogeneity, have shaped over the centuries an extraordinarily rich nature of plant biodiversity. The areas with the highest naturalistic value, fall mainly in the phytoclimatic mountain range which is approximately from 1,000 to 1,800 m. s.l.m: the area pertaining to the Beech (Fagus sylvatica).


The beech-woods of the Maruggio Mountains, Arioso and Pierfaone, are ascribable to the type Aceri Lobelii-Fagetum thanks to the presence of majestic beech trees in association with noble broad-leaved trees such as the Maple of Lobel (Acer lobelii), the Acer Opalus, the Country Maple (Acer campestris), the Carpinella (Carpinus orientalis). In the northern area of ​​the park, there is a powerful forest complex that extends over the slopes of Monte Serranetta and includes the Bosco di Rifreddo, where the splendid beech forests as the altitude falls are enriched by different species, in particular the Turkey oak (Quercus cerris).


In support are found many species typical of heliophilous woods such as eastern hornbeam (Carpinus orientalis), black hornbeam (Ostrya carpinifolia), hazel (Corilus avellana), maple of Hungary (Acer obtusatum), Acer lobelii, Pyrus spp. Among the herbaceous plants there are Veronica officinalis, Anemone apennina, Scilla bifolia, Atropa belladonna, Allium ursinum formante, in the freshest and most fertile valleys, extensive vegetable coulters together with Sambucus nigra and Galantus nivalis.


In the rupicolous areas of Serra di Monteforte there is the Lucanian yarrow (Achillea lucana). In the south-east direction rises the mountainous cordon formed by the Serra Mountains of Calvello, Monte Volturino, Monte Madonna di Viggiano, Monte S. Enoc, M. Caldarosa which host the most imposing forest of the Region. Numerous endemisms give value to the flora of the grasslands of altitude: we remember Hippocrepis glauca exclusive of the Volturino, Schlerantus perennis, Geranium cinereum, Veronica austriaca. A site already designated as a SIC area is the Abetina di Laurenzana, a high forest with subjects as high as 40 m, predominantly of silver fir (Abies alba). The typical association Spruce-Beech leaves the phytosociological patterns of the Apennine areas of central-northern Italy as it represents a more thermophilic and heliophilous variant with the presence of species such as holly, hawthorn, dog rose and, among the herbaceous ones, the Seal of Solomon, the Myosotis, the cyclamen, the odorous little star.


To the west, south-west, on the border with Campania, we find a spectacular example of thermophilic beech-wood: the Faggeto di Moliterno framed by the association Aquifolio - Fagetum. The herbaceous cover is of great value and includes in addition to the species mentioned above: Lathirus venetus, Euphorbia amygdaloides, Lilium bulbiferum and, in the Sterraturo prairies, numerous orchids such as, among others, Orchis simia, Ophiris apifera, Ophiris lucana, Ophiris sphegodes. Lake Laudemio is framed by the limestone massif of Mount Sirino - Pope extensive beech forests combining with the Neapolitan alders (Alnus cordata) of the lake shores. The area includes rare floristic endemisms such as Vicia sirinica and Astragalus sirinicus.


In the hills up to 500 m dominates the Mediterranean vegetation that encloses the horizon of the heliophilous broadleaf trees, dominated by the Leccio. In relation to altitude and exposure, the Lecceta gives way to mixed stands of Turkey oak and downy oak, often accompanied by other deciduous species such as Quercus fraineto, Acer obtusatum, Fraxinus ornus, Alnus cordata, Ostrya carpinifolia and Castanea sativa, the ciavardello (Sorbus torminalis) and rowan of the birdies (Sorbus aucuparia).


Among the common shrubs is Butcher's Broom, wild asparagus, hawthorn, privet, cotognastro, and cornel. Where the morphology softens, the holm oak rises forming small woods rich in junipers; widespread nuclei of lentisks (Pistacia lentiscus), terebinths (Pistacia terebinthus) and filliree (Phyllirea latifoglia) enrich the picture of the Mediterranean flora which, in the most arid areas, gives way to cysts (Cistus salvifolia and C. monspeliensis) and to the scented broom (Spartium jungeum). Interesting is the cerreta of the regional state forest Fieghi-Cerreto located in Piano dei Campi at the foot of Monte Raparo. Lago del Pertusillo is surrounded by thermophilic Roverella woods, rich in mushrooms and truffles. Oaks, holm oaks, lentisk cores, junipers, phillyrea, up to the cysts and the broom, enrich the edges of the valley forming a dense green carpet. Below, the Agri river flows in its twisted bed, the waters of which bathe the woods of poplars, willows and viburnum that in spring offer a spectacular white bloom.

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The Park area influences and is influenced by the wildlife communities of the neighboring parks and guarantees genetic exchanges among the populations hosted in this vast system of protected areas.

The environmental variability is reflected in a good diversity of fauna.

Aquatic ecosystems are rich in Amphibians and Crustaceans. Among the Amphibians it is necessary to remember the widespread presence of the Italian newt (Lissotriton italicus) of the yellow-bellied toad (Bombina pachypus), of the spectacled salamander (Salamandrina tergiditata) and of Hyla Intermedia.

The most important crustaceans are: the Crab (Potamon fluvialis fluvialis) and the Shrimp (Austropotamobius pallipes); the latter, among other things, represents an important indicator of water quality.

These Crustaceans together with the rich Fishes present in Lake Pertusillo constitute an important aquatic community and represent an indispensable food source for rare and significant species such as the Otter (Lutra lutra).

Along with Cyprinids such as Cavedano (Leuciscus cephalus) and Rovella (Rutilius rubio), both the brown trout (Salmo trutta fario) and the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), the bleak (Alburnus alburnus alborella) are found in the waters of the lake , the Carp (Cyprinus carpio) and many other species.

Rivers and humid environments represent the ideal environment also for different species of birds frequenting inland waters, some of which are migratory, such as the Black Stork (Ciconia nigra) which is a nesting species and the White Stork (Ciconia ciconia). Always among the waders are frequenters of the lake and of the swamps: the greater white Heron (Egretta alba), the red Heron (Ardea purpurea) and the more common Gray Heron (Ardea cinerea); species such as the Garzetta (Egretta garzetta), the Spatula (Platalea leucorodia) and the Cavaliere d'Italia (Himantopus himantopus) are easily seen as well as the Night Heron (Nycticorax nycticorax). Another noteworthy presence is that of the Capovaccaio (Neophron percnopterus), a nesting species in the territory of the Park.

The open spaces at high altitudes, over 1500 meters, are the domain of the large birds of prey that for some years have seen the return of erratic individuals of Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos), the stable presence of the peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus) and the imperial crow (Corvus corax). A little further down, in ancient forests the presence of the Eagle Owl (Bubo bubo) is also reported, while in the hilly areas the Red Kite (Milvus milvus) and the Poiana (Buteo buteo) are particularly abundant. In wet environments it is possible to spot the Black Kite (Milvus migrans) and the Marsh Harrier (Circus aeruginosus).

Among the reptiles there is the water turtle (Hemys orbicularis) and the rare Hermann turtle of land (Testudo hermanni). Among the large snakes it is common to find the Cervone (Elaphe quatuorlineata) and the Saettone (Zamenis lineatus) and it is not rare to find butterfly apparently in the Viper (Vipera aspis) frequenting warmer and dry environments. Very interesting are the colonies of Luscengola (Chalcides chalcides) in high altitude meadows where it is also possible to see the Orbettino (Anguis fragilis), Sauri with reduced or absent limbs.

The varied terrestrial environments are the kingdom of numerous species of small and rare carnivorous mammals such as the Puzzola (Mustela puteorius) and the wild cat (Felis silvestris). The Wolf (Canis lupus) is undoubtedly the terrestrial predator at the top of the food pyramid that sees among its favorite prey the Wild boar (Sus scrofa), very diffused in the Park.

The mountain and foothill meadows, in addition to offering shelter to the Porcupine (Hystrix cristata), are the elective environments of the timid European Hare (Lepus capensis) which is prey to the much more common Fox (Vulpes vulpes).

Among the insects, the presence of Rosalia alpina is worthy of note, a beetle that with its lively color makes its presence appear in the most mature forests along the entire mountain ridge.

avifauna

Chiotteri

Amphibians

Mammals

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The Alta Murgia welcomes a fauna among the most interesting of Puglia and Italy, with widely distributed species tied to steppe environments and a few species distribution point linked to other environments.
Among the birds that populates the Murgia there are some of the most important populations of species of steppe and semiarid areas of the Mediterranean basin: lark ( Calandrella brachydactyla ) and the calender ( Melanocorypha calender ) that have particular relevance for the purposes conservazionistici being the most numerous populations Italian peninsula, woodlark ( Lullula arborea ), skylark ( Alauda arvensis ), crested lark (Cristata Gallery ), stone curlew ( Burhinus oedicnemus ). The Murgia welcomes several species of birds of prey including one of the largest populations in the world of lesser kestrel ( Falco naumanni ), a priority species for which the steppe is the trophic habitats and nesting in the historical centers of the neighboring countries where it determines a match unique among ancient architecture and nature. Other species of birds of prey of great importance in the area are the red kite ( Milvus milvus ), the short-toed ( Circaetus gallicus ), the Montagu's harrier ( Circus pygargus ), the marsh harrier ( Circus aeroginosus ), buzzards (Buteo buteo), The kestrel ( Falco tinninculus ), and the Lanner falcon ( Falco biarmicus feldeggii ) for which southern Italy is the western limit expansion.
Among the owls are the barn owl ( Tyto alba ), the long-eared owl ( Asio otus ) and the owl ( Athene noctua ).
The Murgia is also the habitat of amphibians such as the Italian newt ( Triturus italicus ), endemism of central and southern Italy, and the yellow-bellied toad ( Bombina pachypus ) and reptiles such as geckos of kotschyi ( cyrtopodion kotschyi ) , the green lizard ( Lacerta bilineata ), the cervone (Elaphe quatuorlineata ), the leopard snake ( Elaphe situla ), the viper ( Vipera aspis ) and the Hermann tortoise ( Testudo hermanni ).
Among the mammals to be counted the fox ( Vulpes vulpes ), the weasel ( Mustela nivalis ), marten ( Martes weasel ), the badger ( Meles meles ) sporadically is also the wolf ( Canis lupus ).
Of great importance is the small mammal population as the main source trophic for many birds of prey, including the shrew ( Suncus etruscus ), Savi's vole ( Pitymis lizards ), the wood mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus ) and the numerous species of bats of which he cites the greater horseshoe ( greater horseshoe bat ), the lesser horseshoe ( Rhinolophus hipposideros ), the Mediterranean horseshoe ( Rhinolophus euryale ), the Miniottero ( Miniopterus schreibersi ), the greater vespertilio ( Myotis myotis ), the vespertilio Blyth ( Myotis blythii ).
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The most widespread forest formations are mainly constituted by quercine species. Of great importance is the presence of oak ( Q. pubescens L.) but also of the holm oak ( Q. ilex L.), of oak ( Q. cerris L.), the thorny oak ( Q. coccifera Oak L.) of Palestine ( Q. calliprinos Webb) of farnetto ( Q. frainetto Ten.) and the rare fragno ( Quercus trojana Webb) and undergrowth consisting of honeysuckle ( Lonicera sp.), hawthorn ( Crataegus monogyna Jacq.) and numerous herbaceous species and shrubby including peony ( Paeonia mascula L. Mill.), clematis (Clematis flammula L.), the rose of San Giovanni ( Rosa sempervirens L.), wild rose ( Rosa canina L.), gigaro ( Arum italicum Mill.) Cyclamen ( Cyclamen hederifolium Aiton).

They are also popular artificial plants prevalence of Aleppo pine. It is reforestation be implemented in about fifty years starting in 1930, involving, for an area of ​​about 25,000 hectares, the inland areas and coastal Puglia bands.

The pine forests are constituted mainly by Aleppo pine ( Pinus halepensis Mill.) And common cypress ( Cupressus sempervirens L.) with undergrowth of oak and coccifera, mastic ( Pistacia lentiscus L.) and ilatro ( Phillyrea sp.). The steppe areas are characterized by a herbaceous vegetation which includes priority species such as stipa ( Stipa austroitalica Martinowsky) and numerous orchid species belonging to the genera Serapias , Orchis and Ophrys including the species, recently discovered, called Ophrys murgiana .

The arboreal-shrubby vegetation characterizing the natural pastures consists of olive ( Olea europaea var. Sylvestris L.), almond ( Amygdalus communis L.), marruca ( Paliurus spina christi Mill.), Loquat ( Mespilus germanica L.), sloe ( Prunus spinosa L.), wild pear ( Pyrus amygdaliformis ), wild almond ( Prunus webbii Spach), hawthorn ( Crataegus monogyna Jacq.), ramno ( Rhamnus saxatilis Jacq.).

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The National Park of Gran Sasso and Montes de la Laga is a natural park in Italy, which was created in 1991.

It covers an area of ​​2,014 square kilometers and is developed by the province of Teramo, L'Aquila, Pescara and, in a lesser manner, in the provinces of Ascoli and Rieti.

The territory is predominantly mountainous.

It is managed by the Parco Nazionale Gran Sasso e Monti della Laga, based in Assergi, in the province of L'Aquila.

Included in Gran Sasso e Monti della Laga National Park, is a popular touristic attraction and ski resort, used several times as filming locations.

Panorama of Gran Sasso d'Italia. Monti della Laga is seen in the background.

National Park of the Gran Sasso and Montes de la Laga.

The Great Highway of Gran Sasso and Montes de la Laga runs through the park between the Gran Sasso peak and the Sierra known as Montes de la Laga. 



The park is one of the largest protected areas in Europe, its most important part being the Gran Sasso massif, which dominates the landscape that surrounds it; it rises vertically in the immense pastures of Campo Imperatore.

A panoramic view of Campo Imperatore.

The kingdom of perpetual snow, rocks and wind.


On the eastern side, from Teramo, there is a majestic "Paretone" which is a part of the landscape of the Adriatic center. It is the kingdom of perpetual snow, rocks and wind.
Read more: Discover the nature and beauty of the high mountain environments in the Valle d'Aosta.
In the north is the profile of the Sierra de los Montes de la Laga, where thousands of migratory birds stop at the shores of Lake Campotosto. 


The frost decorates the cross of the Gran Sasso.
There are more than 200 kilometers of horse trails that can be used to visit the park.The National Park of Gran Sasso is developed by the province of Teramo, L'Aquila, Pescara and in a lesser way in the provinces of Ascoli and Rieti.

The flora in the Gran Sasso.


Intensive deforestation, especially for the purpose of providing new pastures for herding, has heavily upset the landscape.

To talk about the flora of the Gran Sasso, we must distinguish, also in this area, between the two sides, the Teramo and the Aquila. 

The first, oriented to the northeast, is characterized by a clay substrate and is subject to greater precipitation; These factors favor the hegemony of the beech, with the development of beech trees of great value. The south side, on the other hand, has a calcareous substrate and a continental climate. 



These factors mainly favor the development of poplars, hornbeam and oaks. In the area are the hazel, the chestnut tree (which forms forests with shade), the maple (often present with mammoth specimens). 

On the sunniest slopes you can find mountain ash and wild cherry. Only thanks to the reforestation are the black pine, the fir and the larch. The introduction of this last species, according to Fernando Tammaro and Carlo Catonica of the University of L'Aquila, was a mistake because the environmental conditions of the place are too severe for a deciduous conifer, which is precisely the larch.
The wild rose grows mainly in calcareous, deep soils, rich in nutrients, in deciduous forests, near hedges and at the edge of the woods.

Among the bushes we can mention the juniper, the bilberry (edible), the belladonna (similar in appearance to the bilberry, but poisonous and sometimes even deadly), the holly. 

The blooms are characterized by lilies (a species protected by a Regional Law of Abruzzo), bells, saxifrage, primroses, gentians, carnations and numerous orchids. 
Read more: Discover Italia: off the beaten path, wine and food itineraries and naturalistic routes.
The alpine star apenine deserves a special mention, a very rare plant in the Apennine mountains.
The Ribes alpinum, is a species of small deciduous shrub characteristic of the Gran Sasso.

The fauna in the Gran Sasso.

The Apennine wolf is confined to the most inaccessible areas of the Gran Sasso and the Monti della Laga.

The most imposing exponent of the fauna of the Gran Sasso is the Marsicano bear, a subspecies endemic to the Apennines, of relatively small size, which until a few years ago seemed to have disappeared, but was recently monitored in sporadic raids in the national park territories . 

Apennine fox and wolf specimens were also present. 

Other common mammals that live in the area are: the wild cat, the wild boar, the deer and the roe deer. 
The chamois has a reddish-brown coat with a dark dorsal line, from the throat to the anal mirror in white.

The apenine chamois had become extinct in the Gran Sasso (due to excessive hunting) around 1890, but it was reintroduced in 1992, and now forms a stable colony composed of more than 1,000 specimens. Among the birds of prey, it is worth mentioning the golden eagle, hawk, griffin, common hawk and hawk. 

The presence of the alpine bird and the woodpecker stand out among the other birds. Between the reptiles it is possible to mention the viper of Orsini, also endemic, smaller than the common viper and characterized by a less lethal and almost inoffensive poison, given the scarcity of sightings of this species. 

Placed in the rocks, close to the water courses and in the areas of low juniper avoid, as far as possible, contact with man.



The population of Rupicapra pyrenaica ornata present in Gran Sasso is estimated at 622 specimens (2015 census), and that of Majella is approximately the same size
Gran Sasso raid.
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The Stelvio National Park is one of the oldest Italian natural parks.

It was born with the purpose of protecting the flora, fauna and beauties of the landscape of the Ortles-Cevedale mountain group, and to promote the development of a sustainable tourism in the alpine valleys of Lombardy, Trentino and Alto Adige.

It covers the territory of 24 municipalities and 4 provinces and is in direct contact to the north with the Swiss National Park, to the south with the Adamello-Brenta Provincial Nature Park and with the Adamello Regional Park: all these parks, together, constitute a vast protected area in the heart of the Alps, for almost 400,000 hectares

Mount Cevedale (Zufallspitze in German) is a mountain in the high Alps 3.769 mts.

The Stelvio National Park is one of the oldest Italian natural parks.


The Stelvio National Park was established in 1935 on a territory that was expanded to 130 734 hectares in 1977.

It is characterized by a multitude of animal and plant species and in its territory there are large forests, agricultural areas, farms of mountains, hamlets and inhabited countries. 



The Stelvio National Park is today administered by a consortium formed by the Ministry of the Environment, Province of Bolzano, Province of Trento and the Lombardy Region. 

The three management committees (Bolzano, Trento and Lombardy) refer to a board of directors, in which scientific and environmental figures are also represented.

Stelvio National Park.

It extends over the territory of 24 municipalities and 4 provinces and is in direct contact with the north with the Swiss National Park, to the south with the Adamello-Brenta provincial natural park and with the Adamello Regional Park.
All these parks, together, constitute a vast area in the heart of the Alps that reaches almost 400 000 ha.
Climbing the Stelvio Pass on the Dolomites.

Location and morphological characteristics.


Located on its 130,700 hectares, in the heart of the Central Alps, the Stelvio is a typical high altitude mountainous park: for approximately three quarters, its territory is above 2000 meters and reaches a maximum of 3,905 meters at the top from 'Ortles.
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Thanks to the high average altitudes, it is characterized by a succession of inaccessible peaks and vast glacial surfaces. The Ortles-Cevedale group, on the border between Lombardy and Trentino-Alto Adige, constitutes its geographical heart.
Located in the heart of the Central Alps, the Stelvio is a typical high altitude mountainous park.


The rocky basement consists mainly of metamorphic rocks (gneiss, phyllites, mica schists) and, to a lesser extent, igneous rocks (granites). The presence of sedimentary limestone rocks (mainly dolomite) in the north-western area of ​​the Park is quite special for the internal Alps.

The areas of the valley floor are characterized by the presence of hay meadows, while the slopes are dominated by coniferous forests; climbing again, we reach the alpine meadow, which, with the increase in altitude, becomes increasingly discontinuous to make way for those species that grow, as isolated specimens, even at very high altitudes.

Flora and fauna.


Here life, especially for plants that can not escape the rigors of weather, becomes difficult. Despite the very low temperatures (even well below -20 ° C and with averages that do not exceed 10 ° C in summer), strong winds (with average speeds close to 50 km / h at higher altitudes) and abundant snowfall (the total accumulation of fresh snow can exceed 7 m), many plants can survive even at more than 3,000 m altitude.
The alpine androsace grows on siliceous rocky debris, moraines and debris.

The fauna counts, only among vertebrates, more than 260 species. It should be noted, to summarize the wealth of fauna of the Park, the important presence of large raptors (golden eagle and bearded vulture), the rich populations of ungulates (especially deer and mountain goats) and the presence of many species typical of habitats. . mountain (alpine galliformes, marmot, white hare, ermine, etc.).



To them is added the myriad of invertebrates that also live, sometimes, in extreme conditions.
In the park you can find deer, chamois, roe deer, ibex, marmots, foxes, stoats, squirrels, hares, and even badgers and weasels.

A park rich in history.


In addition to being a park with great landscapes and exuberant nature, the Stelvio is also a park rich in history. 

During World War I, the western end of the battle front ran here.
Many traces of these tragic events, the struggle for survival against extremely difficult environmental conditions against men, still remain today, especially in the Valle del Braulio and Passo dello Stelvio, in the Valle dei Forni and in the Valle di Gavia.

Military roads and mule tracks, trenches and military villages are still a testament to the events of the "White War".
In addition to being a park with great landscapes and exuberant nature, the Stelvio is also a park rich in history. 

The Stelvio National Park was born on April 24, 1935 with the administration entrusted to the State Agency of State Forests and the State Forest Corps.

Since 1995, for twenty years, it has been administered by a consortium between the State, the Lombardy Region and the two autonomous provinces of Trento and Bolzano.
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With the entry into force at the end of February 2016 of the legislative decree 13 January 2016, n. 14 the consortium was abolished and the administrative functions, for the territory of their respective competence, were transferred to the Autonomous Provinces of Trento and Bolzano and to the Region of Lombardy, which administers the Lombardy area through Ersaf / Regional Services Agency Agriculture and forestry. The unitary configuration of the Park is guaranteed by a special Coordination and Direction Committee.

Supervision of the park area.

The supervision of the area of ​​the Park is exercised by Carabinieri  (Lombardy) and by the Provincial Forestry (Bolzano and Trento).

The supervision of the area of ​​the Park is exercised by Carabinieri Parks Reparto NP "Stelvio" in Lombardy and by the Provincial Forestry Body in the provinces of Bolzano and Trento.

The protected area covers twenty-three municipalities, more or less widely included within it (ten in Lombardy, ten in the Province of Bolzano and three in the Province of Trento).
Each one of the municipalities of the Park is an ideal starting point to explore the protected area. Its 1500 km of trails allow you to venture out to discover the nature and the human landscapes of the Stelvio.



The visitor centers are the ideal place to deepen the knowledge about the most diverse aspects of such a rich environmental reality.

At the information points, it is possible to have all the useful information about the protected area and about the many initiatives (excursions, workshops, guided tours, various events) organized by the Park.
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The Gallura region extends to the north of Sardinia along a stretch of steep coast, characterized by long and narrow inlets, granite rocks and islands such as the Magdalena Archipelago.

The main cities and towns are Olbia, Tempio Pausania, La Maddalena, Arzachena and Calangianus. It is part of the province of Sassari.

The first human settlements in Gallura date back to approximately 30.000 years ago, when the first populations crossed the strait between Tuscany and Sardinia. This historic period is known as the Stone Age. Foreign populations colonize Gallura due to its numerous natural resources.

Many people from the nearby island of Corsica came as well to Gallura during this historic period.

The mid-late neolithic Arzachena culture subsisted almost exclusively in this area, and here is found the remains of perhaps the oldest megalith on Sardinia, at Li Muri.
The Gallura region extends to the north of Sardinia along a stretch of steep coast,

The Gallura region.


Around Santa Teresa di Gallura and up to the promontory of Capo Testa, there are some wonderful beaches.

Long and narrow inlets, granite rocks and islands characterize the Gallura region.


The local people speak the "gallurés". A diasystem of the Sardinian, closely connected with the Corsican.

While to the east (province of Arzachena) extends the Costa Esmeralda , the most famous and known stretch of Sardinian coast in the world, to the west, around Santa Teresa di Gallura and to the promontory of Capo Testa, there are some wonderful beaches that they have nothing to envy to the most emblazoned and famous of the island.
Nuraghe_Izzana_(1600 a.C.)


Beach The Liscia (Porto Liscia).


The beach of Porto Liscia is the first one to be found when leaving the territory of Palau and heading northwest towards the coast of Santa Teresa di Gallura .
This sandy area is characterized by a beautiful granite golden sand and has a total of about 2 km, from a reef covered with Mediterranean vegetation to the mouth of the river Liscia, from which it takes its name.

The sea, on the other hand, is notable for having a low background with crystalline waters of iridescent color between the emerald green and the azure blue.
The Beach of Porto Liscia is the first one they find when leaving the territory of Palau.

Beach The Licciola.


A few kilometers to the west, in the town of Valle dell'Erica , is the beautiful beach of La Licciola.

The beach is characterized by a clear sand of medium grain and some reefs in the sand that make it an even more suggestive beach. The crystalline sea has a low background and a color between green and intense blue, as we move away from the shore.

From here, in addition, you can admire a beautiful panorama that includes from the nearby reef of the Colombaia to the island of Spargi that is glimpsed in all its splendor to the horizon.
La Licciola beach is characterized by a clear medium-grained sand and some reefs in the sand.

Beach of Cala Sambuco.


Cala Sambuco is a small beach in the shape of a crescent , characterized by clear sand and crystal clear waters of green and light blue and dark tones. The background is rounded stones and reefs that emerge from the water while all around is Mediterranean vegetation of an intense green that colors the landscape.



Quiet and isolated, this free beach has no services and is especially appreciated by lovers of snorkeling.

To get there from Santa Teresa di Gallura you have to go east, following the signs for Marazzino and turn left following the signs for La Diana restaurant, always proceed straight, go over the junction and turn left and then the right by a dirt road that is called, precisely, Cala Sambuco Road.
Cala Sambuco is a small crescent-shaped beach, characterized by clear sand and crystal clear waters.

Beach of  La Marmorata.


The beach of Marmorata , with its shallow waters and clear sand, with a splendid sea of ​​green and turquoise waters, is surely one of the most beautiful in northern Sardinia.

To complete the magnificent panorama there is a homonymous island that can be reached by swimming from the coast and where you can visit the remains of an ancient Roman quarry.

The beach is equipped with all the services : ample parking, bars, restaurants, possibility of renting umbrellas, sun beds and pedal boats.
Read also: Those who opt for a holiday in Sardinia can meet a variety of interests.
You can also practice snorkeling, windsurfing and other water sports, while trekking enthusiasts can venture on the many paths that lead to the charming coves nearby.
At La Marmorata Beach you can practice snorkeling, windsurfing and other water sports.

The beach of Rena Bianca.


A few steps from the historic center of Santa Teresa di Gallura, the beach of Rena Bianca is one of the most famous in Sardinia.

The beach takes its name from the fine white sand that together with the pink coral fragments that make up the sand, create a unique color, embellished by the clear blue of the sea and the green of the Mediterranean vegetation that surrounds it.

It is no coincidence that in 1987 the beach of Rena Bianca received the recognition of Blue Flag of Europe.


Equipped with all services, it is very easy to get to the beach from the center, which is why it is always very busy, especially in the high season months such as July and August.
A few steps from the historic center of Santa Teresa di Gallura, the beach of Rena Bianca is one of the most famous in Sardinia.

Beach of the Two Seas (Rena di Levante and Rena di Ponente).


From Santa Teresa di Gallura, traveling along Via Capo Testa, you reach the isthmus, on whose sides you can find the beaches of Rena di Levante (east) and Rena di Ponente (to the west).

Rena di Levante is a long stretch of white sand, surrounded by rocky coves and Mediterranean vegetation and thanks to its crystal clear waters has been on several occasions Blue Flag. Further on there is a second stretch of coast, known as Zia Culumba beach (Santa Reparata Bay), which houses suggestive remains of Roman-era columns, also visible underwater.

To the south, Rena di Ponente is a beautiful beach of soft golden sand that is characterized by a sandy area of ​​medium dimensions surrounded by wild and solitary nature, especially behind the promontory of Capo Caccia, bathed by a crystalline and green sea. In the vicinity there are several services: bars, restaurants, hotels and shops.
To the south, Rena di Ponente is a beautiful beach of soft golden sand that is characterized by a sandy area of ​​medium dimensions.
Rena di Levante is a long stretch of white sand, surrounded by rocky coves and Mediterranean vegetation.
Cala Espinosa beach.

Cala Spinosa is an authentic hidden paradise, ideal for those who seek to relax away from the movement of beach bars.
Read also: In Italy There Are Approximately 1500 The Most Important Museums Of The World Heritage Museum.
To get there you will have to follow the indications for the Capo Testa lighthouseand continue on foot along a steep path, but we assure you that your efforts will be rewarded. The sand is presented with a background of clear sand alternated with suggestive granite rocks.

The beautiful seabed with varied and fascinating scenarios will delight lovers of diving and snorkeling.
Cala Spinosa is an authentic hidden paradise, ideal for those looking to relax away from the madding crowd.

Cala Grande beach (Valle de La Luna).


The beach of Cala Grande is reached through a suggestive path in the Valley of the Moon, named for its gigantic white granite massifs , shaped by the ancient erosion of the wind. The highest reaches 128 meters above sea level and is known as La Calavera.

A fantastic setting that accompanies the coves and the lush Mediterranean vegetation, where you can still find a hippy community that, from the 60s , settled down in this magical place, immersed in the beauty of the primordial and distant nature of the daily frenzy.

Still today you can find travelers from all over the world, artists, musicians and people with an adventurous spirit who come to the valley in search of peace and tranquility. Safety pin!
The beach of Cala Grande is reached through a suggestive path in the Valley of the Moon.

La Liccia Beach.


La Liccia is a beach of fine white sand that overlooks a crystalline sea about 5 km from Santa Teresa di Gallura.

Little crowded and with wide open spaces is the ideal place to relax.

The beach and its shallow seabed is especially suitable for bathing and for the children to play while its transparent and crystalline waters are especially suitable for underwater excursions.
La Liccia is a beach of fine white sand that overlooks a crystalline sea about 5 km from Santa Teresa di Gallura.
Rena Majori beach.

Rena Majori is located in the homonymous town of Aglientu, about 7 km from Santa Teresa di Gallura. The beach, with very fine and clear sand, is surrounded by reefs and granite rocks that look out over a beautiful turquoise sea.


Crossed by two rivers (Cantaru River and Ciuchesa River) the extensive stretch of Rena Majori is always quiet and sheltered, as it is surrounded by dunes covered with vegetation and rocks. Behind it, the presence of a pine forest guarantees a pleasant and cool shelter in the hot summer days.

Among the services present, a large parking lot and a campsite, the possibility of renting umbrellas, sun loungers and roller blades. Its seabed is extremely varied and rich in fish, making it a destination especially suitable for underwater dives.
Rena Majori is located in the homonymous town of Aglientu.

We have reached the end of this top 10 on the most beautiful beaches to see in Santa Teresa di Gallura and surroundings, aware that there is nothing more difficult than making a "classification" of the beaches of Sardinia.

Do you know any other beautiful Sardinian beach that we did not include in this brief summary?
Well, nothing simpler! Add it in the comments area with all your data.
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The recipes of meals, an argument so traditional and important in the blogs with Italian themes are present in the list of the 10 most read and voted posts during the year 2019.

Examples? : Italian Easter Recipes: Campania-style Fried Eggs with Cheese and Italian Easter Recipes: Lamb with Artchokes.

Articles related to nature, art and the environment, the basis of Italian tourism, have also been regularly visited.

Examples? : Discover the nature and beauty of the high mountain environments in the Valle d'AostaLake Garda is the largest lake in ItalyMount Etna is an active stratovolcano on the east coast of Sicily, close to Messina and Catania and The Vatican Library to digitalize 80.000 manuscripts with around 40 million pages.
Vatican-Library-Manuscript - Vat.lat.3225

Italy Photo Gallery: Top 10 most popular articles in 2018.ù

Here are the most visited posts during 2018

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Discover the nature and beauty of the high mountain environments in the Valle d'Aosta.

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Lake Garda is the largest lake in Italy.

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Mount Etna is an active stratovolcano on the east coast of Sicily, close to Messina and Catania.

Mount Etna is one of the most active volcanoes in the world and is in an almost constant state of activity. The fertile volcanic soils sup...

The Vatican Library to digitalize 80.000 manuscripts with around 40 million pages.

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Volcanoes in Italy, all located in the south of the country.

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Aosta Valley is the smallest region in Italy; in its northwest, it is located between France and Switzerland.

At its core are its majestic peaks (the region is, after all, mostly mountainous).

Here we can find the highest peaks in the Alps: Cervino, Monte Rosa, Gran Paradiso and the king of them all, Mont Blanc, which at 15,781 feet is the highest mountain in Europe, the roof of the old Continent.

Those who are not familiar with mountaineering can use the comfortable, yet thrilling, cable car; catch it just a few miles from Courmayeur, one of the most important ski resorts in the world.
Aosta Valley map.

Discover the Aosta Valley.


In this setting of stately mountains and diverse valleys sits the oldest National Park, the Gran Paradiso, where it is still possible to see animals in their natural habitat - ibex, chamois, eagles and marmots live in vegetation that changes according to the surrounding environment.



Historically, the Aosta Valley has been viewed as land of contact and conjuncture between Italy and France; such is also reflected in its official bilingualism and its special status as autonomous region.

The great modern tunnels of Gran San Bernardo and, even more so, those under Mont Blanc - extraordinary engineering masterpieces that run to France - highlight even more clearly this aspect of intersection between Italy and the rest of Europe.

The only province of the region is Aosta (regional capital).
Pollino National Park - The Serra Dolcedorme

What to See.


When we think about the Aosta Valley, we immediately think of the ski slopes of Cervinia, Courmayeur and Pila, famous all over Europe and the destination for anyone who loves skiing, trekking, snowboarding and ice skating. This region offers amazing natural attractions, but other cultural and traditional treasures also abound.
The Valle d'Aosta is surrounded by some of the highest peaks in Europe.Click to Tweet
Those who come from the south can use the symbolic entrance represented by the municipality of Pont Saint Martin, starting point of the road that penetrates into the beautiful Gressoney Valley. The first century BCE Roman Bridge, over which the old consular road to Aosta used to pass, is an example of the Roman influence on this territory.

Along the valley that goes from Pont Saint Martin to Courmayeur, we can count 82 buildings that stand on the valley like sentinels, including primitive fortifications, military fortresses, residences and watchtowers. These are evidence of the region’s rich feudal history, and offer visitors the opportunity to follow an incredibly-engaging and interesting route.
Read also: Discover Italia: Off The Beaten Path, Wine And Food Itineraries And Naturalistic Routes.
The most famous castle in the Aosta Valley is the Castello di Fénis, which looks austere but is in fact a collection of the best defence techniques of the time; its refined interiors reveal the wealth of its former occupants. Other beautiful castles are the Castle of Issogne, Sarriod de la Tour, Sarre, Saint-Pierre, and Ussel, to name but a few.

The road plotted by the castles leads to Aosta, a mix of Roman and Medieval history, and enriched by picturesque traditions.

This essentially Roman city shows some visible signs of that period, with important monuments such as the Arch of Augustus, the Praetorian Gate and the city walls, on which you can walk, taking a long and pleasant stroll for almost the entire length. The Cathedral of Santa Maria Assunta is particularly interesting, with the archaeological excavations under floor of the most recent church, as are Piazza Chanoux and the monumental building of the Sant’Orso Collegiate Church, which dates back to the 11th Century.

The fair that takes place every year in Aosta at the end of January is dedicated to St. Orso as well. Thousands of tourists fill the decorated streets of the old town, which shows off the oldest crafts of Aosta Valley, from sculpture to wood, wrought iron to hot stone, leather, wool fabrics and lace, and games and masks.


What to Do.

National Park of the Belluno Dolomites - Cajada Forest.
In any season of the year, visiting Monte Rosa, practicing sports on its slopes, or simply walking along the paths to reach the top, you will enjoy the enchanting and magical surroundings that are created by the interplay of light, colors and hues that cover your way. 

A number of sports can be enjoyed on Monte Rosa and in its valleys; the three valleys of Ayas, Gressoney and Valsesia are the hub of one of Italy’s largest ski resorts. Cross-country skiing, mountain skiing and snowboarding can all be enjoyed in the coldest season, while climbing, rafting, canoeing, hiking and mountain biking are the options during the warmer months.



To admire the beauty of the glaciers, Punta Helbronner is a magnificent terrace where you can take in the stunning views.

A cable car will carry you up to Mont Fréty, where you can visit the Pavillon du Mont Fréty Natural Oasis, a large protected area that is home to numerous examples of mountain fauna; it houses the Saussurea Mountain Garden, one of the highest mountain gardens in Europe, with more than 900 plant species of wild flowers from Mont Blanc and other mountain ranges around the world.

During the summer, trekking lovers will appreciate the paths that unwind inside the Oasis, ideal for with nature and admiring the magnificence of the landscape. If you would want to see Mont Blanc from above, you can experience the thrill of a hot-air balloon flight and practically skim the mountaintops!

For those who love good wine, the Aosta Valley offers a wine trail, directing tourists to vineyards and wineries in order to discover the different grape varieties that grow in sometimes harsh conditions.

What to Taste.


The regional food of the Aosta Valley is hearty, creative and composed of authentic flavors. Some regional specialties are carbonada, (stewed meat with wine, onions and spices), and mocetta (dried beef or ibex seasoned with mountain herbs).

Salami is another delicacy to taste, as is the wonderful Arnad lard, a type of Aosta Valley sausage cooked with boiled potatoes, lard, seasoning, and the reputed Bosses ham.

The cheeses are equally-excellent, including the renowned Fontina Dop, used for many recipes like fondue, which is served before or after the typical soup of the Aosta Valley (made with cabbage, Savoy cabbage, fontina cheese and stale rye bread).

Thanks to the region’s microclimate, vines can bear fruit up to 3,937 feet in altitude, while the fruit trees bear such delicacies as walnuts, chestnuts, Rennet apples and the famous Martin pears.

More than 20 wines are designated as originating from “Aosta Valley - Vallée d'Aoste.” Some examples are Arnad Montjovet, Enfer d’Arvier, Blanc de Morgex et de la Salle and Donnas. Complete your meal with the extraordinary herb liqueur "Genépy des Alpes," traditionally drunk from a wooden goblet.



Gran Paradiso National Park - Shutterstock
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