Has inhabitants1 4,450,359 and its capital is Turin. Bordered on the north by Switzerland (cantons of Valais and Ticino), east to Lombardy, on the southeast by Emilia Romagna (sharing a limit of just under 8 km) south to Liguria, the west by France (Rhône- Alpes and Provence-Alpes-Cote d'Azur), and on the northwest by the Aosta Valley. It is one of the regions of Italy with more exports, with a GDP of nearly 130 billion euros
The Piedmont, located in the westernmost part of mainland Italy, is surrounded by mountains on three sides, the Western Alps, from the passage of Tenda to the Simplon. Its highest peaks are Mount Rosa (4,638 meters), the Matterhorn (4,482 m), the Gran Paradiso (4,061 m) and the Monviso (3,841 m), where the river Po. The geography of Piedmont is 43.3% mountainous, along with extensive areas of hills (30.3%) and plains (26.4%).
The Alps descend slowly southward, but not always, because sometimes there is a sharp transition from the mountains to the plains, and reaches the end of a plain which is formed by deposits and Quaternary alluvium. It is the great Po Valley, consisting of Po river system and its many tributaries, most notably the Dora Baltea and Tanaro. South of the Po is a Tertiary land area whose altitude ranges between 400 and 900 meters.
The main river is the Po Piedmont, which arises from the slopes of Monviso in the west of the region and collects all the waters provided within the semicircle of mountains (Alps and Apennines) which surround the region on three sides.
The Piedmont has a continental climate, with rains that are between 700 and 1,400 mm a year.
The landscape is diverse: curled passed the peaks of the massifs of Monte Rosa and the Gran Paradiso National Park to the wet rice fields of Vercelli and Novara, from the rolling hills of the Langhe and Monferrato to the plains.
The percentage of the territory which is a protected area is 7.6%. There are 56 different parks, national or regional.