sassone  The walls of Saxon: This location may be the 'old Xifeo, conviction handed down by an uncertain location described by Livy, and called Lymphaeum (Linfèo), bitterly place involved in the Punic Wars.

In the time it was called Saxon as results from some documents, was completely destroyed in the late fourteenth century.

fortezzecarolingeThe 'area contains the remains of the walls around 1,500 meters long, the defense system was built by the Lombards.

The Cave Woman Marseilles: Practically in what remains of the walls of Saxon, you open the Cave Woman Marseilles, inside were recovered several artifacts to be referred to the third millennium BC, also there was found a skeleton and fragments ceramic due to the culture of the Sicilian Count Plan.

How to get there.
From San Basile or Morano Calabro, take the road that connects the two towns. At mid-term (3 miles) to the right if coming from San Basile, left if coming from Morano Calabro, you see the two walls of the door 'entry of' ancient citadel. Once all 'inside the city, following the slope of the ground, heading downstream, there is a rocky ledge at the base of which opens the Cave Woman Marseilles.



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FortediCeraino The Fort Ceraino, originally called Fort Hlawaty, is a fortress built by the Austrians, which rises in the territory of the municipality of Dolcè on the left bank of the Adige.

Passed in 1866 in Italian hands, took the name of Fort Ceraino (from the locality of the municipality is located).
ceraino_piantaCurrently decommissioned by the army, is in a state of neglect.

The Ceraino Fort, built by the Austrians between 1850 and 1851, was called by them to the Lieutenant Field Marshal Johann von Hlavaty in recognition for his work as a military architect. After 1866, when Veneto was annexed to the Kingdom of Italy, was called Fort Ceraino.

It rises on the left side of the Adige on a small shelf at a height of Mount Pastel 236, but the underlying domain of the bend in the river, in the municipality of Dolcè Ceraino in the locality. He had to beat the Val Lagarina Dolcè, Mount San Marco and a part of the morainic amphitheater of Rivoli, crossing fire with strong Rivoli and the Adige below.

After the meeting of the Veneto region of Italy, was ammodernto and improved by changing the direction of the shot, and plugging in the new defensive system built into the Trentino border of the Habsburg Empire. Was used as a munitions depot. It has been discharged from a few years by the Italian Army and was used by the Forest Service.

Today the fort is open from the outside.

The fort is located at a height of 236 m above sea level and is situated on a plateau dominating the valley of the Adige, on the side of Mount Pastel. It was and is still accessible via a narrow military road from the hamlet of Ceraino and then connects it to the Fort of Mt.
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Its construction has been constrained by the uneven rocky, leading him to have an irregular plan.
The building was built entirely of local red ammonitic. The main part consists of a central battery system consists of a casemate directed towards the valley of the Adige with 8 slots for the artillery.
At the side there is a wall that connects two distinct parts, provided with slits. The two parts consist of two blockhouses, one on the north tip of the north-west (with five slots) and one south, which has two slits facing west.

Outside is equipped with a fence that protects the gunner, with a layer of earth often more than two meters. Furthermore, the fort is surrounded by a ditch ten feet wide and deep as many circus that narrows toward the rock. At the entrance there is a drawbridge.
Inside is a courtyard with large tanks for rainwater piping systems with ingenious. The interiors are well designed, with various rooms of different uses: gunner, interior stairs and corridors, storerooms, rooms for officers, etc.
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roccalbegna03  Roccalbegna (GR) is located in the upper valley dell'Albegna, at the foot of the last propagini complex of Mount Amiata. His position is somewhat unique being located on a plateau between two rocks overlooking exploited over the centuries for defense purposes.

roccalbegna_mapThe town is of medieval origin: it is found in a privilege of the Emperor Otto IV in favor of the abbey of Monte Amiata signed in 1210. In the thirteenth century was a possession of the family Aldobrandeschi that dominated most of the castles of these lands. In the early decades of the thirteenth century the castle was, however, under the rule of a local family, that of Ugolino di Roccalbegna Ranieri, whose descendants, between 1293 and 1296, were forced to give up their rights to the town of Siena.

Roccalbegna born in the southern lip of Mount Amiata, dominating the entire valley. The country is dominated by a rock characterized by very high walls that are smooth like a tower. On top of this rock, commonly called "Rock", stands a fortress.

In regard to this particular rock, is indicative of the popular saying: "If the stone Scrocca, farewell to the rock."

The Sienese expanded the fortifications and endowed the town with walls of a cornice made with intermediate support towers. During the rule of Siena Roccalbegna suffered assaults and raids by the Aldobrandeschi, as in 1331, when gangs of Count Andrea sacked the town of Santa Fiora. The country remained despite the troubled period was under the influence of the Sienese Republic until the mid-sixteenth century when it surrendered to Florence. Cosimo I de 'Medici to give Roccalbegna in fief to Cardinal Antonio Sforza and Sforza-Cesarini family descendants of Santa Fiora. In 1646, after being returned to the Grand Ducal estate, passed to the family of Siena Bichi-Ruspoli, remaining under their control until the late eighteenth century when it became a municipality in the Grand Duchy of Tuscany.
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In the village is worth visiting the Church of Saints Peter and Paul, built in medieval times, which preserves valuable works of art of various periods. Unique and unusual is the position of the architrave of the portal strongly inclined to the right due to a collapse of the ground. Nearby is the Oratory of the Holy Cross with a beautiful bell tower that houses the Museum of Oggio Roccalbegna. To the south is still well-preserved gate of the fen and immediately outside it is the fifteenth-century Church of Our Lady of Succour.

The country also retains some civic buildings including the Palazzo Ruspoli-Bichi that occurs in ashlar masonry defensive system and the remains of which are still visible a door, some sections of walls and towers. But the peculiar feature of Roccalbegna are the two spikes of rock above it. On the higher, commonly called by the inhabitants "the rock" is used essentially as a keep a lookout point, probably built in the early thirteenth century by the Counts Aldobrandeschi. The position of an eagle nest gives charm to this fort that the military point of view overlaid unimportant. The "rock" in the centuries has caused concern neeli inhabitants of the country because of stability problems and gaps for the position of rock that swooped on the homes below. A popular saying in fact reads: if the Rock Sasso Scrocca goodbye.

At the beginning of the fifteenth century, due to the loss of its strategic importance, the fort, then owned by the State of Siena, was left abandoned. On the rocky outcrop stood a keep built by the Sienese in today to visit the remains now used as a public garden.



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Palio_Siena_Piazza_del_Campo  The Palio of Siena is a competition between the districts of Siena in the form of a carousel horse of medieval origin.
The "Career" as it is traditionally called the race, usually held twice a year: July 2 there is the Palio of Provenzano (in honor of the Madonna di Provenzano) and 16 August the Palio of the Assumption (in honor Our Lady of the Assumption).

contrade-palio-sienaOn the occasion of exceptional events (such as in 1969 the conquest of the Moon by Apollo 11) or the city or national anniversaries deemed relevant and appropriate (eg. The centenary of the Unification of Italy) the Sienese community may decide to make an extraordinary Palio between May and September (the last one was held in 2000, to celebrate the entry into the new millennium).
Each participating Palio Contrada only ten of the seventeen total, chosen by lot, according to a shift that is in July and August in July in August.

The mechanism is as follows:
run of the seven law Contrade not have the Palio over a year earlier;
one month before the Palio (the last Sunday in May for the Palio of July and the first Sunday after the Palio of July for the August Palio) are raffled three Contrade that will complement the batch of ten;
the other seven are extracted to determine the order of the parade and participate in the historical parade of law relevant to the Palio of the following year (retaining this order of extraction);
in case of extraordinary Palio, is a draw among all the districts to determine the ten participants.

The Palio was won by the horse, with or without a rider, after he has completed the first three laps of the square in a clockwise direction (the 'vulgate' says, "provided that the ports on the front spennacchiera, ie the rosette with the colors of the Contrada for which is running "but in reality it has only decorative value and visual aid).
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